Terminology and definitions page
Some terms and expressions that people might not be familiar with.
For links to further information, click the underlined headings.
Aciclovir (ACV), also known as acyclovir, is an antiviral medication. It is primarily used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections, chickenpox, and shingles.
Aldesleukin: is used to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC, a type of cancer that begins in the kidney) that has spread to other parts of your body.
Amino Therapy  The use amino acids to impair cancer cells by interfering in five specific elements of cell formation: energy, structure, function, growth hormones and blood vessels. See also CAAT
  1. to articulate (a speech sound, especially a stop) so as to produce an audible puff of breath, as with the first t of total,   the second being unaspirated.
  2. to articulate (the beginning of a word or syllable) with an h -sound,as in which, pronounced (hwich), or hitch as opposed to witch or itch.
BEACON phase iib Neuroblastoma trial randomisation:  A randomised phase IIb trial of BEvACizumab added to Temozolomide ± IrinOtecan for children with refractory/relapsed Neuroblastoma - University of Birmingham.
BevacizumabBevacizumab, sold under the trade name Avastin, is an angiogenesis inhibitor, a drug that slows the growth of new blood vessels.

Blood Count  The number and types of cells circulating in your blood.
Bone marrow aspiration (BMA) and bone marrow trephine biopsy are important procedures for the diagnosis of hematological malignancies and nonmalignant diseases in children.
Broviac Line:   Broviac catheter a central venous catheter similar to the Hickman catheter but with a smaller lumen.
Catafalque: Structure used at funerals
CED: Convection Enhanced Drug Delivery. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a method of direct intracerebral parenchymal infusion. It has been previously studied as a mechanism of drug delivery in glioma therapy, which is the focus of this review, and much work has gone into the utilization of this technique. 
Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy, or "chemical treatment," has been around since the days of the ancient Greeks. However, chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer began in the 1940s with the use of nitrogen mustard. Since then, in the attempt to discover what is effective in chemotherapy, many new drugs have been developed and tried.
Clear Cell Sarcoma:  Clear-cell sarcoma (formerly known as malignant melanoma of the soft parts) is a rare form of cancer called sarcoma. It is known to occur mainly in the soft tissues and dermis. Rare forms were thought to occur in the gastrointestinal tract before they were discovered to be different and redesignated as GNET.
CT Scan:     Computerised tomography, CT or CAT scans use a series of X-rays to build up images of the insides of a person's body.
Differentiation Therapy:...... Differentiation therapy is an approach to treating advanced cancers in which malignant cells are encouraged to differentiate into more mature forms using pharmacological agents. The basis of the therapy stems from the tendency of malignant tumor cells to assume a less specialized, stem cell-like dedifferentiated state.
Domperidone (INNUSANBANJAN) (brand name Motilium, many others) is a peripherally selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica that is used as an antiemeticgastroprokinetic agent, and galactogogue.
Double Lumen Catheter A double lumen catheter is a long, flexible medical device that consists of one hollow tube within another hollow tube. The word “lumen” means an open area inside an object, as in the lumen of the intestine. It differs from a single lumen catheter in that it enables two different actions to take place close together and with less tissue trauma. These actions could be the withdrawal of fluid or the insertion of fluid, air or small medical devices. These catheters can be used to drain blood, urine or unwanted liquid, such as from the lungs or abscesses.
ECG: Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG*) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.
Echo: An echocardiogram is an ultrasound scan of the heart. It is sometimes just called an 'echo'. 
G-CSF   G-CSF (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor). This helps your body to make more white blood cells.
Haemoglobin: Protein in red blood cells
Haemotology:  Haematology is a branch of medicine concerning the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. The word "heme" comes from the Greek for blood.
Hickman Line:    Hickman line is a central venous catheter most often used for the administration of chemotherapy or other medications, as well as for the withdrawal of blood for analysis. Some types are used mainly for the purpose of apheresis or dialysis. Hickman lines may remain in place for extended periods and are used when long-term intravenous access is required. They are inserted under sedation or a general anaesthetic by a radiologist or surgeon. The insertion involves two incisions, one at the jugular vein or another nearby vein or groove, and one on the chest wall. At the former incision site (known as the "entrance" site), a tunnel is created from there through to the latter incision site (known as the "exit" site), and the catheter is pushed through this tunnel until it "exits" the latter incision site. The exit site is where the lumens are seen as coming out of the chest wall. The catheter at the entrance site area is then inserted back through the entrance site and advanced into the superior vena cava, preferably near the junction of it and the right atrium of the heart. The entrance site is sutured. The catheter at the exit site is secured by means of a "cuff" just under the skin at the exit site, and the lumens are held down otherwise by a sterile gauze or dressing centered on the exit site, which also serves the purpose of preventing potential contamination at the exit site. Throughout the procedure, ultrasound and X-rays are used to ascertain the positioning of the catheter.
Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is treatment that uses certain parts of a person’s immune system to fight diseases such as cancer. This can be done in a couple of ways:
  • Stimulating your own immune system to work harder or smarter to attack cancer cells
  • Giving you immune system components, such as man-made immune system proteins
Infusion Pump: An external infusion pump is a medical device used to deliver fluids into a patient’s body in a controlled manner. There are many different types of infusion pumps, which are used for a variety of purposes and in a variety of environments.

Infusion pumps may be capable of delivering fluids in large or small amounts, and may be used to deliver nutrients or medications – such as insulin or other hormones, antibiotics, chemotherapy drugs, and pain relievers.

Some infusion pumps are designed mainly for stationary use at a patient’s bedside. Others, called ambulatory infusion pumps, are designed to be portable or wearable.

Isotope:     An isotope of a chemical element is an atom that has a different number of neutrons (that is, a greater or lesser atomic mass) than the standard for that element.

The atomic number is the number of protons in an atom's nucleus. Atomic mass adds to that the number of neutrons in the nucleus. Each element has a typical atomic mass, but when the number of protons stays the same and the number of neutrons changes, you have an isotope. These can be stable, like Deuterium, an isotope of Hydrogen that has one extra neutron, or they can be radioactive, like Plutonium-239, which is a component of nuclear waste.

IVAD Port - Implanted Venous Action Device: An IVAD is a small device that is surgically inserted completely beneath your skin. The IVAD is a hollow device (reservoir or port) attached to a flexible tube (catheter). The reservoir is placed beneath your skin on your chest or upper arm, and the catheter is inserted into a large vein in your chest. Once inserted, you will not see the IVAD but you may see a bump where the reservoir is placed. The IVAD is made for long term use and can be left in place for as long as you need it. When a special needle is inserted into the reservoir, it creates “access” to your bloodstream. That means it can be used to give fluids, medications, blood or blood products or IV nutrition. Sometimes, blood samples may be taken from the IVAD. 
Lymph Nodelymph node is an oval- or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, present widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach and linked by lymphatic vessels. Lymph nodes are major sites of BT, and other immune cells. Lymph nodes are important for the proper functioning of the immune system, acting as filters for foreign particles and cancer cells. Lymph nodes do not deal with toxicity, which is primarily dealt with by the liverand kidneys.
Medical Port:  

In medicine, a port is a small medical appliance that is installed beneath the skin. A catheter connects the port to a vein. Under the skin, the port has a septum through which drugs can be injected and blood samples can be drawn many times, usually with less discomfort for the patient than a more typical "needle stick".

Ports are used mostly to treat hematology and oncology patients. Ports were previously adapted for use in hemodialysis patients, but were found to be associated with increased rate of infections and are no longer available in the US.[1]

The port is usually inserted in the upper chest (known as a "chest port"), just below the clavicle or collar bone, leaving the patient's hands free.

Port insertion
Medulloblastoma: is the most common type of paediatric malignant primary brain tumour (cancer), originating in the part of the brain that is towards the back and the bottom, on the floor of the skull, in the cerebellum or posterior fossa.
Mesothelioma.....is a type of cancer that develops in the lining that covers the outer surface of some of the body's organs. ... Mesothelioma mainly affects the lining of the lungs (pleural mesothelioma), although it can also affect the lining of the tummy (peritoneal mesothelioma), heart or testicles.
Metastatic Cancer: Metastatic cancer is a cancer that has spread from the part of the body where it started (the primary site) to other parts of the body. 

MIBG Therapy

Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is a compound that can be combined with radioactive iodine (I-131) to deliver targeted radiation therapy. I-131 MIBG can be used to treat high-risk neuroblastoma, a cancerous tumor that begins in nerve tissue of infants and very young children. MIBG therapy is generally more effective, less painful, and requires less time in the hospital than other treatment options.

Originally developed as a blood pressure medication, MIBG is a compound that is absorbed by certain types of nerve tissue, including neuroblastoma cells. For many years, it has been used diagnostically to determine where cancerous activity is occurring within the body. 

More recently, oncologists began using it to deliver targeted radiation to neuroblastoma. I-131 MIBG is administered to a child through an intravenous line and absorbed by tumor cells, which are killed by radiation emitted by the radioactive I-131. This therapy destroys tumors while sparing normal, healthy tissue. MIBG therapy is currently used to treat relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma and is being studied as a treatment for newly diagnosed high-risk patients.

I-131 MIBG is well tolerated. The major side effect of therapy is low blood counts. A large study showed that 30-40 percent of children with relapsed neuroblastoma respond to MIBG therapy, which makes it one of the most active agents for relapsed disease. While it doesn’t cure neuroblastoma, I-131 MIBG allows patients to gain control of their disease and provide the possibility of prolonged disease stabilization.

MRI ScanMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body.
Mucositis: Mucositis is the painful inflammation and ulceration of the mucous membranes lining the digestive tract, usually as an adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment for cancer.
Neuroblastoma: Neuroblastoma is a type of cancer that starts in certain very early forms of nerve cells found in an embryo or fetus. (The term neuro refers to nerves, while blastoma refers to a cancer that affects immature or developing cells). This type of cancer occurs most often in infants and young children. It is rarely found in children older than 10 years.
NeurofibromatosisNeurofibromatosis is a genetic disorder that causes tumors to form on nerve tissue. These tumors can develop anywhere in your nervous system, including your brain, spinal cord and nerves. Neurofibromatosis is usually diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood.

The tumors are usually noncancerous (benign), but sometimes can become cancerous (malignant). Symptoms are often mild. However, complications of neurofibromatosis can include hearing loss, learning impairment, heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) problems, loss of vision, and severe pain.

Neutropenia: Neutropenia or neutropaenia, is an abnormally low concentration of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the blood.
NG Tube:      Nasogastric intubation is a medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (nasogastric tube or NG tube) through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach. Orogastric intubation is a similar process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (orogastric tube) through the mouth.

As a sump tube where the physician desires to keep the stomach continuously and completely evacuated of swallowed air, swallowed saliva, gastric secretions or fresh blood the nasogastric (NG) tube is used with a vacuum source. The original Levin tube failed Dr. Harold W. Andersen in 1958 and he endeavored to engineer a double lumen NG tube to reduce the vacuum of the aspiration lumen by adding a vent lumen to the outside including an anti-reflux filter at the proximal end of the vent lumen and additional markings for placing the tube in the patient. This was the first double-lumen nasogastric tube. 

Netropohil: Neutrophil  are the most abundant type and the most abundant (40% to 75%) type of white blood cells in most mammals. They form an essential part of the innate immune system
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist.
Ondansetron marketed under the brand name Zofran, is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapyradiation therapy, or surgery.
Osteonecrosis: is a disease caused by reduced blood flow to bones in the joints. With too little blood, the bone starts to die and may break down.
Palliative Care   Specialised care for people with serious illness
Piriton: Piriton tablets are indicated for symptomatic control of all allergic conditions responsive to antihistamines, including hay fever, vasomotor rhinitis, urticaria, angioneurotic oedema, food allergy, drug and serum reactions, insect bites.

Also indicated for the symptomatic relief of itch associated with chickenpox.

Platelets: Blood clotting
Rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of soft tissue sarcoma (tumour). Fewer than 60 children are diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma in the UK each year. Most of them are younger than 10 years old. It is more common in boys than girls.
Rhabdomyosarcoma, or RMS, is an aggressive and highly malignant form of cancer that develops from skeletal (striated) muscle cells that have failed to fully differentiate. It is generally considered to be a disease of childhood, as the vast majority of cases occur in those below the age of 18. It is commonly described as one of the "small, round, blue cell tumours of childhood" due to its appearance on an H&E stain. Despite being a relatively rare cancer, it accounts for approximately 40% of all recorded soft tissue sarcomas.
Radioactive Isotope:  One of two or more atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons with a nuclear 
composition. In nuclear scanning, radioactive isotopes are used as a diagnostic agent. 
Use of Radioactive Isotopes in Medicine - Radioactive isotopes are used for radiation therapy and for locating brain tumours.
Radioactive tracer: radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radioisotope so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products. 
Shingles: also known as herpes zoster (HZ)........ a painful and unsightly rash that's caused by a reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which is also responsible for chickenpox.
Stem Cell HarvestingThe process of collecting (harvesting) stem cells for transplant depends on the source of the stem cells. Stem cells can be collected from bone marrow, circulating (peripheral) blood or umbilical cord blood.

Read more: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/diagnosis-and-treatment/stem-cell-transplant/harvesting-stem-cells/?region=on#ixzz4S6I53iHX
Subcutaneous Injection .......under the skin.
Temozolomide is an oral chemotherapy drug
Vascath..A vascath is a catheter (flexible plastic tube) that is inserted into a vein located either in the neck (the internal jugular vein) or the groin (the femoral vein). It is sometimes known as a dialysistype central venous catheter. Vascaths are usually inserted to treat kidney failure (where the patient is going to have dialysis) or to remove blood cells (where the patient is going to have apheresis), and are designed to have blood withdrawn and replaced within the body at a rapid rate (up to 400mls per minute).